Database management is a system of managing the information that is used to support a company’s business operations. It involves storing data, disseminating it to users and applications and editing it when needed as well as monitoring changes in data and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is one component of a company’s overall informational infrastructure that aids in decision-making and growth of the company as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory to aiding complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that arrange data according to a certain pattern, for example, one-to-many relationships. It uses primary keys to identify records and permit cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of fields, referred to as attributes, that contain information about data entities. The most widely used type of database that is currently in use is a relational model created by E. F. « Ted » Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also simpler to update data because it doesn’t require the modification of various databases.

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level addresses costs, scalability, and other operational concerns, such as the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on the various data models) and could also include virtual tables that are computed using generic data to improve performance.